Gerund is a term used to denote certain types of non-finite verb forms in various languages. The English word gerund comes from the Latin gerundium (which itself derives from the gerundive of the Latin verb gero, namely gerundus, meaning "to be carried out"). The Latin gerund (gerundium) is a verb form which behaves similarly to a noun, although it can only appear in certain oblique cases. (It should not be confused with the Latin gerundive, which is similar in form, but has a passive adjectival use.) In English grammar, the gerund is a verb form in -ing when used to make a verb phrase that can serve in place of a noun phrase (thus being similar in function to the Latin gerund). The same -ing form also serves as the English present participle (which has an adjectival or adverbial function), and as a verbal noun. In relation to certain other languages, the term gerund may be applied to a form which has noun-like uses like the Latin and English gerunds, or in some cases to various other non-finite verb forms, such as verbal adverbs (also called adverbial participles). Meanings of the term gerund as used in relation to various languages are listed below. As applied to English, it refers to the use of a verb (in its -ing form) as a noun (for example, the verb "learning" in the sentence "Learning is an easy process for some").[1] As applied to French, it refers either to the adverbial participle—also called the gerundive—or to the present adjectival participle. As applied to Latin, its form is based on the participle ending, similarly to English. The –ns ending is replaced with -ndus, and the preceding a or e is shortened. However, the gerund is only ever seen in the accusative form ("ndum"), genitive form ("ndi"), dative form ("ndo") or ablative form ("ndo") (see Latin conjugation.) If the gerund is needed in the nominative form, the present infinitive is used instead. As applied to Macedonian, it refers to the verb noun formed by adding the suffix -ње (-nje) to the verb form, like in јаде (jade, he eats) — јадење (jadenje, eating). As applied to Japanese, it designates verb and verbals adjective forms in dictionary form paired with the referral particle no, which turns the verbal into a concept or property noun, or also can refer to the -te form of a verb. As applied to Portuguese, it refers to an adverbial participle (a verbal adverb), called gerundio. As applied to Romanian, it refers to an adverbial participle (a verbal adverb), called the gerunziu, formed by appending -and or -ind, to the verb stem, like in cantand/fugind". As applied to Spanish, it refers to an adverbial participle (a verbal adverb), called in Spanish the gerundio. As applied to Turkish, it refers to the Turkish verbal nouns formed by appending -ma or -me, depending on vowel harmony, to the verb stem, like in "Sana sormam?n bir mahsuru var m??" ("Do you mind my asking you?" - not to confuse with the negational -ma postfix.) The Turkish gerund is rather similar in meaning and use to the English gerund. As applied to Arabic, it refers to the verb's action noun, known as the masdar form (Arabic: ??????). This form ends in a tanwin and is generally the equivalent of the -ing ending in English. As applied to Hebrew, it refers either to the verb's action noun, or to the part of the infinitive following the infinitival prefix (also called the infinitival construct). As applied to West Frisian, it refers to one of two verb forms frequently referred to as infinitives, this one ending in -n. It shows up in nominalizations and is selected by perception verbs. In other languages, it may refer to almost any non-finite verb form; however, it most often refers to an action noun, by analogy with its use as applied to English or Latin. Verbs that are often followed by a gerund include admit, adore, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, describe, detest, dislike, enjoy, escape, fancy, feel, finish, give, hear, imagine, include, justify, listen to, mention, mind, miss, notice, observe, perceive, postpone, practice, quit, recall, report, resent, resume, risk, see, sense, sleep, stop, suggest, tolerate and watch. Additionally, prepositions are often followed by a gerund.